Monthly Archives: November 2018

“Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma”

“Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma”

Natalie Kopytko a JohnPerkins b
a The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
b The Evergreen State College, 1806 24th Avenue NW, Olympia, WA 98502, USA
Received 15 April 2010, Accepted 29 September 2010, Available online 30 October 2010.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510007329?via%3Dihub

Abstract
Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation–mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to adapt to climate change and (2) the potential for nuclear power operation to hinder climate change adaptation. Sea level rise models for nine coastal sites in the United States, a review of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents, and reports from France’s nuclear regulatory agency provided insights into issues that have arisen from sea level rise, shoreline erosion, coastal storms, floods, and heat waves. Applying the criteria to inland and coastal nuclear power plants reveals several weaknesses. Safety stands out as the primary concern at coastal locations, while inland locations encounter greater problems with interrupted operation. Adapting nuclear power to climate change entails either increased expenses for construction and operation or incurs significant costs to the environment and public health and welfare. Mere absence of greenhouse gas emissions is not sufficient to assess nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change.

Research Highlights
►The adaptation-mitigation criteria reveal nuclear power’s vulnerabilities. ►Climate change adaptation could become too costly at many sites. ►Nuclear power operation jeopardizes climate change adaptation. ►Extreme climate events pose a safety challenge.

end quote of abstract. see original link above.

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Extreme weather and nuclear power plants

Extreme weather and nuclear power plants

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289163143_Extreme_weather_and_nuclear_power_plants_EXWE_EXWE_summary_report

see also download at : http://safir2014.vtt.fi/finalseminar/Day_2/TR5_8_4_EXWE_SAFIR2014.pdf

Kirsti Jylhä
32.05Finnish Meteorological Institute
Hanna M. Mäkelä
24.69Finnish Meteorological Institute
+ 8
Ari Venäläinen
34.18Finnish Meteorological Institute
Milla Johansson
19.57Finnish Meteorological Institute

“This research comprehensively described the occurrence of extreme weather and climate events and aspects of sea level rise that are relevant from the view point of safety of nuclear power plants. Studies about the frequency, intensity, and spatial and temporal variation of the extreme weather events and their combinations were carried out utilising instrumental meteorological observations, a 1 200-year long preindustrial control simulation and future climate model simulations. In addition to the role of natural climate variability, the study clarified the influence of human-induced climate change on extreme weather events and sea level values. The longest future climate and sea level projections extend to the end of the 21st century. According to them, the daily maximum temperatures and the length of the longest hot spells will clearly increase in Finland. The largest changes, however, are projected for the wintertime minimum temperatures. During summer there will be more intensive precipitation events and during winter more frequent precipitation days. The mean sea level is projected to rise, the change depending on the location along the Finnish coastline. Uncertainty ranges in the mean sea level scenarios are large mainly due to uncertainties in the future behaviour of the continental ice sheets.” end quote. Please see original link above.

IAEA: “Effects of Extreme Weather on Nuclear Power Plants” 2010

Selected slides from an IAEA slide show.

source link:
http://indico.ictp.it/event/a09141/session/34/contribution/24/material/0/0.pdf

Title:
Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Vulnerability of Energy Systems to
Climate Change and Extreme Events
Oszvald Glöckler
19 – 23 April 2010
IAEA
Vienna
Austria
Effects of Extreme Weather on Nuclear Power Plants

Station Blackout due to grid failure IS a serious safety issue for a nuclear power plant.

Max Planck Institute: “Probability of contamination from severe nuclear reactor accidents is higher than expected”

Source Link: https://www.mpg.de/5809418/reactor_accidents

Publication Date:
MAY 22, 2012
Title:
Probability of contamination from severe nuclear reactor accidents is higher than expected Western Europe has the worldwide highest risk of radioactive contamination caused by major reactor accidents

Brief quote: “Catastrophic nuclear accidents such as the core meltdowns in Chernobyl and Fukushima are more likely to happen than previously assumed. Based on the operating hours of all civil nuclear reactors and the number of nuclear meltdowns that have occurred, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz have calculated that such events may occur once every 10 to 20 years (based on the current number of reactors) — some 200 times more often than estimated in the past. The researchers also determined that, in the event of such a major accident, half of the radioactive caesium-137 would be spread over an area of more than 1,000 kilometres away from the nuclear reactor. Their results show that Western Europe is likely to be contaminated about once in 50 years by more than 40 kilobecquerel of caesium-137 per square meter. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, an area is defined as being contaminated with radiation from this amount onwards. In view of their findings, the researchers call for an in-depth analysis and reassessment of the risks associated with nuclear power plants.” end quote.

Please see original full text at the above link

Non Fuel Renewable Energy, Australia, 2018-19

Last year was a record year for renewable energy in Australia, with 2,200 megawatts of capacity added. Based on data from the Clean Energy Regulator, during 2018 and 2019 Australia will install about 10,400MW of new renewable energy, comprising 7,200MW of large-scale renewables and 3,200MW of rooftop solar (see charts below). This new capacity is divided roughly equally between large-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), wind farms, and rooftop solar panels. This represents a per-capita rate of 224 watts per person per year, which is among the highest of any nation.

Source: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/RET/About-the-Renewable-Energy-Target/Large-scale-Renewable-Energy-Target-market-data

Summarised at https://theconversation.com/at-its-current-rate-australia-is-on-track-for-50-renewable-electricity-in-2025-102903

No wind, solar or hydro power plant in the world has caused a radiological emergency in any nation.