Dr. Goldman’s Monsters

Dr Marvin Goldman has had an illustrious life in the service of nuclear power both for military purposes and civilian ones.

He was one of many people who were interviewed as part of the disclosure process that the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was mandated to perform. The list of people interviewed in this process can be viewed here: https://ehss.energy.gov/ohre/roadmap/histories/index.html

Dr Goldman’s interview transcript can be found here: https://ehss.energy.gov/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.html

Dr. Goldman is credited by the USA as being the first person to isolate a hot particle in living tissue. (The British have chosen another person for the equivalent honour). To quote the transcript : “In 1951, Goldman began his career working at the Nevada Test Site on the Buster-Jangle Series to determine the inhalation pathway in animals of hazards from fallout of nuclear weapons tests. That same year, he detected the first “hot particle” of plutonium in lung tissue. Subsequent to his work at the Nevada Test Site, he completed his Ph.D. at the University of Rochester, where he studied under Dr. Newell Stannard.” Source: ACHRE, The Roadmap to the project, interviews at https://ehss.energy.gov/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.html

Dr. Goldman makes the observation that the plutonium was still in the sheep’s lung only because the sheep was dead. Had it been alive, the sheep would have, according to Dr. Goldman’s view, been exhaled. Another dogmatic binary logic expressed by a nuclear advocate. In my opinion. He does not consider hot particles to be a big deal apart from the dose calculated from the movement of such contamination in and then out of the lungs in a contaminated environment.

At some diameters of particle he might be right I think, but he isn’t right about that in all such events. If he was right then coal miners would not suffer black lung disease for example, and asbestos would be perfectly safe just as Lang Hancock maintained. In any event the concommitted dose must still be reduced as far as reasonably achievable.

The sheep in question in the Goldman interview was tethered at the Nevada nuclear test site and subjected to nuclear fallout before killed and examined by Dr. Goldman.

Dr. Goldman was among the last nuclear industry advocates who claimed that the Chernobyl nuclear disaster did not produce any radiation caused illnesses among the civilian populations adjacent to the burning reactor core. Which was made of graphite. This is attested to by the following :


“Children who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster are developing thyroid cancer sooner and in larger numbers than expected, researchers report.

“The results are the first reliable data in the population downwind of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, said Dr. Marvin Goldman, a radiation biologist at the University of California at Irvine who was not involved in the new study.

“An increase in thyroid cancer had been reported earlier, but some Western health officials had expressed concern about the reliability of the data.

As recently as May 1991, Dr. Goldman took part in an International Atomic Energy Agency study that concluded that there were “no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation.” end quote. Source: New York Times as stated above at http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/03/world/a-cancer-legacy-from-chernobyl.html

Today however, any such reminders of the period immediately post Chernobyl in which purportedly scientific and rational “experts” made pronouncements about the rates of disease resultant from Chernobyl radioactive fallout and contamination should be enough to cause the industry to cringe. Such is the nature of the beast that it does not cringe.

Repeatedly it merely repeats the past.

I refer to the paper
The Russian Radiation Legacy: Its Integrated Impact and Lessons, by Marvin Goldman
Professor of Radiobiology Emeritus, University of California,Davis, California
Environmental Health Perspectives * Vol 105, Supplement 6 * December 1997
available for download as a pdf at:


“Chernobyl…The most intense part of the radioactive
footprint left a unique environmental

We were able to use satellite images
to delineate the Chernobyl damage to the
adjacent radiosensitive pine forest that runs
8 to 10 km west of the Chernobyl reactor

Infrared images were taken weekly by
the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Satellite
as it passed over most of the Earth.

Images from the Chernobyl region were used and
by enhancing the infrared reflectance wavelengths
for those bands corresponding to
chlorophyll and moisture, it was possible to
discern living from dead pine trees.

Thus, from an altitude of about 700 km, a crude
spatial and temporal map of the heaviest
hit region was developed.

Because pine trees have about a median lethal dose of 6
Gy (6), the images, beginning approximately
3 weeks after the accident, indicated
a western swath of dying and dead
trees, the so-called red forest.

It was later learned that the map was correct but the
doses were not. The trees actually had
received doses of over 100 Gy (7), but
regardless of the dose, the technique
showed where the doses exceeded a 6-Gy
detection threshold.

Over the next 10 years, much of the damaged forest left
standing has shown major regrowth and

“The more resistant deciduous trees
showed significantly less radiation damage
than other types of trees.” Source, as cited above, page 1386.

How the written words of Dr. Goldman, which celebrate the cleverness of
science and satellites and his own expertise, reveal, not horror at being a witness to the death of a forest, but satisfaction and wonder at his own ability
to perceive the events from afar!. How differently a Ukrainian patriot would have viewed the results of this most blatant evidence of the consequence of the occupation of a nation by a foreign and accursed power! The Soviet reactors. Celebrated as being perfectly by the IAEA only a few years prior.

Of the ordinary people who lived within the immediate vicinity and further away, Dr. Goldman wrote:

“Another consequence of the accident is
related to communication, miscommunication,
and lack of communication. A serious
cloud of doubt arose, especially about the
manner in which the initial official information
was disseminated.

“Fear precipitated by
exaggeration in the popular press was mixed
with public pronouncements attempting to
minimize the risks.

“This contributed to a
resulting widespread radiophobia. An
underlying assumption of this condition
gives credibility to the notion that many
adverse health conditions stem from hidden
radiation exposures, sometimes synergistically
interacting with chemical
environmental pollution.

“Although there
now is no dosimetric support for this
belief, its consequent psychological stress is
quite real to many of the residents near and
far from the reactor. The effects of this
widespread stress may have ramifications
beyond the area of psychology; whether it
exacerbates a wide spectrum of adverse
consequences has yet to be proven.

of thousands of premature deaths, especially
among the liquidators, may be only
anecdotal and have not yet been subjected
to rigorous analysis or shown to be related
to radiation exposure. Caution should be
taken to avoid over interpreting these

“Most of the population who experienced
stress and feelings of anxiety after
the accident have not received consistent
and credible assistance in either understanding
their stress or mitigating it. It
remains a challenge for the scientific and
the political community to address jointly.” Source: as cited above, page 1387

It must be remembered that Dr. Goldman is remembered as one of the last scientists to refute the fact of radiation induced increase in Childhood thyroid cancer due to the Chernobyl disaster. ( New York Times, Sept 3, 1992, A CANCER LEGACY FROM CHERNOBYL, By GINA KOLATA as given above, in this it is written that: “As recently as May 1991, Dr. Goldman took part in an International Atomic Energy Agency study that concluded that there were “no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation.” By 1992 then science had proven Goldman’s awe and wonder at dying trees and denial of human health effects to be completely wrong headed. He was one of the last nuclear advocates to be proven wrong about Chernobyl induced thyroid cancer. People do make mistakes. I know of no link proven link between alleged “Radiophobia” and Thyroid cancer in Chernobyl children or adults.

By 1997, the date of his paper “he Russian Radiation Legacy:…..” as cited above, was still able to relate in that paper his wonder at watching a forest die in 1986 and over the years since. He was able to ponder what health effects people may have suffered due to anxiety and fear, which he labelled radiophobia. Yet his main point to ponder about fear and health was that radiophobia had not been proven to cause specific health effects. And here the modern nuclear industry says “Well today we know much more about it”.

The thing I would point out to such nuclear experts is this:

If it were you who were an ordinary person in Ukraine in 1986 who was watching a formerly blessed and healthy and very large forest die from radiation poisoning, how would you feel and what would your anxiety and fear do to you sir and madam?

Goldman communicates no remorse about the death of the forest. From 1986 until 1992 Dr. Goldman denied any link between Chernobyl and thyroid cancer in the affected populations. In those 6 years he advocated most strongly for the industry perception that there could not be any link between Chernobyl fallout and disease of any kind.

And that’s a fact.

Of those industry advocates who follow in Goldman’s footsteps today, such as Prof Pam Sykes at Flinders University, Bedford Park SA (see her paper here: https://news.flinders.edu.au/blog/2011/07/14/radiation-response-a-meltdown-in-reason/) I say to them: remember how Goldman claimed, in his testimony during the ACHRE interview how the population of the high radiation area of Kerala, India were protected by that radiation? I remind you again now of a portion of my submission to the recent Royal Commission against you all.

I remind you that various regions of Kerala, India, particularly those where background readings are among the highest in that state of India. The rate of various cancers in those places are among the highest in world, and certainly the highest in all India. I refer you all the recent Indian press about this situation which the state government of Kerala called a “crisis”. And I remind you all again that in direct contradiction to Goldman’s testimony the ACHRE committee, where he stated much was known about these diseases in relation to children in Kerala, in fact, today’s expert Indian scientists, researchers and doctors lament most strongly the very deep lack of knowledge held in relation to childhood cancers in Kerala. The assertions of Goldman made for decades, from the bomb age to the reactor age, have been well and truly demolished in large part by science and by the experience of veterans of both those accursed bombs and the fallout from nuclear reactors.

For instance: “There was once this big brouhaha about increased levels of mongolism72 in the children along the Kerala Coast.” Source: Goldman, M. ACHRE oral history project at https://ehss.energy.gov/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.html

I refer the reader to the recently created National Cancer Atlas of India.

How compassionate is it of any industry advocate to call such a crisis in dread disease a mere Brouhaha??

For a full account of my refutation of Goldman, Sykes, Baht et al see my submission to the SA royal commission into the nuclear fuel cycle here: http://nuclearrc.sa.gov.au/app/uploads/2016/03/Paul-Langley-04-08-2015.pdf In particular the following pages and sections:

Page 43: Media, Academic Papers and Qualified Sources relating to Public Health in Kerala, India. Highest rate of cancer cases in Kerala: Chief Minister Oommen Chandy

Page 44: Down’s syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

Page 45: Morbidity Study – Incidence, Prevalence, Consequences

Page 46 : All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in Kerala state of
India: results from a 5-year follow-up of 161,942 rural community dwelling adults. REPORT ON MEDICAL CERTIFICATION OF CAUSE OF DEATH 2008
HOME AFFAIRS, Background radiation and cancer incidence in
Kerala, India-Karanagappally cohort study

Page 48: Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India.

I conclude that there is no health benefit to living in areas of higher than normal radiation dose areas. In fact, those same areas show higher rates of diseases that both experts and lay people associate with radiation doses considered higher than normal. These findings fly in the face of Goldman and his neophytes.

Many nuclear advocates who claim to be scientists in the relevant areas and indeed work within it hold Dr. Goldman in high regard. They emulate both he and Marshall Brucer in the tone of their statements. They follow his findings and repeat them, sometimes as their own. But Goldman himself was inculcated by older nuclear advocates. It is time someone either brought the Goldman era either to date or confined it to the dustbin of Cold War propaganda from whence it originated. Goldman and his type were expert at convincing US Downwinders they had nothing to fear from the fallout from the Nevada nuclear test site. Goldman thought himself an expert when he witness via satellite images the death of the Chernobyl forest. He thought he was expert when, for nearly a decade he denied any negative health effects from Chernobyl fallout. He was one of the last hold outs against the idea that thyroid cancer greatly increased in Chernobyl affected populations. The Goldman view of the Chernobyl effects cannot deny that there is an increase in the rate of thyroid cancer related to it. But the Goldman view is that no other health consequence, what ever it is, can be admitted as being radiation related. However, the Goldman view ponders the link between the experience of living through or adjacent to a nuclear emergency.

And this raises an important series of points. South Australian schools have never, at the primary or secondary level, taught radiological safety or health physics as a subject. Consideration of teaching such subjects in Japan from 1969 on never to took place. While the nuclear industry bemoans the lay person’s sense of relative risk that industry makes things worse with its use of the mass media to bombard South Australians with Brucer’s and Goldman’s pet none sense, the idea that high radiation areas have lower radiogenic disease rates. They don’t in Iran, and they don’t in India.

Japan is different to Ukraine for many reasons in terms of expected radiological outcomes. The Japanese population are blessed with one of the richest diets in stable Iodine. Most people in Japan are much wealthier than most people were in the Ukraine at the time of the Chernobyl disaster. The children of Chernobyl were far more likely to be stable iodine deficient in stable Iodine than the children of Japan. And the children of Chernobyl continued to drink contaminated milk for weeks and were not evacuated for about 2 weeks. The fallout was not the same, and so on and on and on. But the population of Ukraine were aware, at least at the level of folk lore, of the USSR’s previous nuclear disasters such as Mayak. The Japanese people until 3/11 had be told that there was “good radiation” and “bad radiation” and that reactors were not like bombs. They were not told though that reactors could spew forth radio Iodine and cesium and some other substances as if reactors were factories for fission products, which Sziliard’s patent papers say they are. And the inventor is correct. Yet for a long time, the nuclear has stated that the bombs and the reactors must not be conflated. Even though in terms of fallout effects, it is the reactors in failure modes which produce the risk of local fallout. The components of bomb fallout and bomb fallout are the same in terms of fission produced. They differ in ratios between substances, the release of different substances, the amounts per unit of fission fuel immediately released and global and local concentrations of contamination. Even so Fukushima fallout was detected globally. The ability to detect fallout is a function of the sensitivity of the detecting equipment and does not constitute a health finding in and of itself. But once calculated, the potentially absorbed dose has to be admitted and shared honestly by nuclear authorities and not hidden by media blackout by those authorities. As it happened in Japan. Following Chernobyl, despite knowing the potentially absorbed dose, the best Goldman and his ilk could do was deny the facts for nearly a decade. Then over scientists effectively out voted him. It is a pity Goldman was not a radiophobe like he thinks we all are. The people downwind of both Nevada and Chernobyl would have been safer. The bomb test era at Nevada in air produced, over the period of about a decade, the fallout equivalent of 10 Chernobyl disasters (Gallagher). And Goldman maintains there was no health effects from that fallout suffered by American downwinders. What utter rubbish!! Of course there were negative health effects downwind of Nevada’s test site. Just as there were down wind of Chernobyl. And of course the evacuations and exclusion zones in Japan were and are valid. I have no motivation to become like Goldman. The only means by which I can achieve such a likeness would be to cut half my brain out. The wonder of democracy was Goldman’s lament. I should be banned from reading and thinking. The nukers have actually put that to me in person. I am according to one such person “non qualified” to read and learn and certainly not qualified to remember what I was taught and trained to do as a teenage soldier whose job included twice daily monitoring, recording and reporting workplace radiation readings. It was a dream job. Especially compared those who served in the jungles of Vietnam at the time. At the same time, the Australian Army helped record the fallout from the French emissions from the Pacific nuclear tests as it arrived and deposited in Australia.

Dr. Goldman’s Monsters are many then, and centre around denial and dictating to the ordinary people of the who they MUST perceive things unquestioningly when nuclear industry issues its edicts and its narratives. In these days, the motivations behind the industry revolve around financial imperatives which increasingly weigh upon the nuclear industry. Well might TEPCO be the financial giant which was too big to fail in Japan. But fail it did, and because of the nature of its enterprise, the ghost of TEPCO still walks and still demands taxes in huge amounts in order that the Japanese people might remediate the affected living space. The nuclear events could have bankrupted Japan and that prospect was the time an existential threat to the independence of Japan. As it is Master Crafts people in Vienna and Brussels tell the afflicted people where to leave, where to go and how long to stay. They dictate from the rule books of the world nuclear organisation and tell the ordinary people of the world who are not not involved and so who have no direct experience of what is actually go on and what has been done that there is “nothing to see here”, “no negative consequences here.”

The monster demand de regulation and continued unaccountability. As it has enjoyed for decades, first in order to defeat a threatened Soviet nuclear attack which was never going to occur and in order to “normalise” its specific pollution, and then simply to make money. Japan was chosen many decades ago as the place in which to produce strategic stockpiles of plutonium. Just in case Americans rebelled against nuclear reactors in the 1950s. Japan now still on many tons of the stuff and US Forces are quite happy with that.

Episode 34 of Australian “Sixty Minutes” (Channel 9 TV Australia) shows us one of the people inculcated in the ways of Goldman et. al. She works at Imperial College London, home of reactor design in the United Kingdom.

Let’s see what she said in that TV program. https://www.9now.com.au/60-minutes/2018/episode-34 Of particular is the interview with Prof. Gerry Thomas, of Imperial College London, the home of the UK reactor design. Prof Thomas’ CV can be found here: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/geraldine.thomas

The following is a partial transcript I made from this “60 Minutes” (Australia) TV program which contains Prof. Thomas’ interview responses in relation to the program. The intent of the program was to discuss Nuclear Power in Australia from the pro side of the debate.

Narrator: “Professor Gerry Thomas, from London’s Imperial College, runs the Chernobyl Tissue Bank. She is a world authority on the health impacts from radiation. She discovered that the final death toll from cancers caused by the 1086 Chernobyl nuclear disaster will eventually lie between 40 and 160 people.”

Prof. Thomas: “That’s around about the figure we are looking at. Not the 1000s that you will hear totted around.”

end partial transcript.

The Chernobyl Tissue Bank, mentioned in the 60 Minutes program, and to which Prof Thomas contributes her effort, is of world importance. Its homepage can be found here: https://www.chernobyltissuebank.com

Located on the Tissue Bank’s “About the Project”, at https://www.chernobyltissuebank.com/about-us.htm , the Tissue Bank authorities have inscribed the following information:

“About the Project
Introduction to the project
The CTB (Chernobyl Tissue Bank) is a unique venture. It is the first international cooperation that seeks to establish a collection of biological samples from tumours and normal tissues from patients for whom the aetiology of their disease is known – exposure to radioiodine in childhood. The project, which started in October 1998, has been supported by a number of sponsors including the European Commission, the WHO, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan (SMHF). The project is currently jointly funded by the NCI and the SMHF. The project is coordinated from Imperial College, London and works with Institutes in the Russian Federation (the Medical Radiological Research Centre in Obninsk) and Ukraine (the Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Kiev) to support local scientists and clinicians to manage and run a tissue bank for those patients who have developed thyroid tumours following exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Belarus was also initially included in the project, but is currently suspended for political reasons.Â

The project has the full support of the Governments of the Russian Federation and Ukraine.Â

The large number of thyroid tumours that have occurred in areas exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident raises important problems in the areas of public health, regulation of exposure to radionuclides and in the understanding of the molecular changes involved in their genesis. The over-riding priority must go to matters such as diagnosis, treatment of those affected, and prevention. International Agencies have given and are giving financial and material help in these areas. However, providing the needs of the patient are not compromised, it is very important to ensure that information that may be of value to the health of future generations is not lost. Although the post Chernobyl thyroid tumours are associated with a particular aetiology, they may also provide clues to the pathogenesis and molecular biology of thyroid carcinoma in general.” end partial quote, source as above.

While Prof. Thomas provided answers to Channel 9 TV (Australia) and as usual in such interviews, was constrained by time. Therefore if one were to sit in on a lecture provided by Prof Thomas, one might expect to be able to ask any question of her. And for the Professor to have freer reign and wider context into which her answers could be framed.

For example, I am in no position to question her death toll estimate related to Chernobyl civilian deaths from thyroid cancer. If caught early early enough the disease has, as a general rule, a high survival rate compared to other cancers.

It is important to note the implications and conclusion Channel 9 presents in Episode 34 of Sixty Minutes (Australia) is that the Chernobyl experience demonstrates the safety of nuclear power should it arrive as a form of electricity generation in Australia.

However, quoting again from the Chernobyl Tissue Bank inscription at its web site : “The large number of thyroid tumours that have occurred in areas exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident raises important problems in the areas of public health, regulation of exposure to radionuclides and in the understanding of the molecular changes involved in their genesis.” Source: Chernobyl Tissue Bank, website, About the Project at https://www.chernobyltissuebank.com/about-us.htm

Aa Prof Thomas will acknowledge if asked by a reasonable person in a situation which is acceptable, far more people have and will contract thyroid cancer due to exposure to Chernobyl released radionuclides and attendant radiation as absorbed dose to thyroid (either internally direct to thyroid tissue or as an external dose to thyroid tissue via gamma emitters such as fission cesium) than will die from the disease. Her view is that between 40 and 160 people will die from cancer due to exposure to Chernobyl emissions.

How many people are estimated to contract Chernobyl related thyroid cancer though? What is it like to contract thyroid cancer and to live with the results of successful treatment? Are the exclusion zones around Chernobyl and the Fukushima reactors valid in Prof Thomas’ view and opinion?

Are there other scientists and doctors (Prof Thomas is not as far as I know licensed as a surgeon) who have views and qualified opinions which vary from the views of Prof. Thomas?

These questions and facts immediately sprung to my mind as Prof. Thomas was used by Channel 9 to conclude the section of the program devoted to the Fukushima Nuclear disaster. Chernobyl’s lack of containment pressure vessel, Fukushima’s reality of containment pressure vessels, the reality of Chernobyl’s weeks of core graphite burning and so on render Fukushima as a Three Mile on steroids, not a muted Chernobyl. The reactor designs are too different to compare when one views Chernobyl with Fukushima.

There is no doubt that Fukushima’s disaster heavily contaminated areas of land in Japan, there is no doubt in the mind of science about that, and that the last land to be decontaminated will be “low value land”, which according to international guidelines may take 30 years to clean up. Hence the exclusion zones, a main aim of which is to prevent re-suspension and transport of radionucildes by human activity.

Chernobyl, Fukushima, 3 Mile Island, Windscale, Sr-1 are all reactor disaster involving release of fission nuclides from reactor cores. There are others.

Given the modern competition as it presents to nuclear power, which energy source should we turn to? Does the existence of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank aid the case for the sale of reactors in preference to alternative non fuel renewables more or less attractive?

Less attractive. Which is the reverse of the point Channel 9 was trying to make. solar and wind would produce zero radio nuclide related thyroid deaths in the course of generating wind and solar power. Zero cases of radiogenic cancers.

Given that thyroid doses from nuclear emissions are indeed a public health matter, and given that government must monitor dose in any case according to international agreement, is the added public health preventative burden which results a benefit of nuclear power? No, its an cost which is not borne by the nuclear industry. Australian taxpayers fund ARPANSA and ANTSO, the relevant regulatory bodies. The cost of funding the regulators if nuclear power will increase if nuclear power arrives in Australia. Nuclear power = bigger government.

Solar and wind will are subject only to EM regulations and electrical regulatory requirements.

Solar and wind do not have radioactive cores which may emit radionuclides if containment fails.

Keep the dose down as far as possible, because you don’t know when the next dose is coming nor do you know what that dose will be.

There are 55 reactors in Japan, including the hulks.

This is all too much for channel 9 to cope with. The advertisers were quite happy though. It remained funded for Episode 35.

“The CTB includes material and information from all patients with thyroid carcinomas and cellular follicular adenomas from the contaminated oblasts of the Russian Federation (Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol) and Ukraine (Kiev, Kiev city, Cherkasse, Chernigov, Rovno, Zhitomyr and Sumy) who were born after 26th April 1967 (i.e. aged under 19 at the time of the Chernobyl accident) and operated on or after the 1st October 1998.” Source: Chernobyl Tissue Bank as cited above.

How many people are thyroid cancer patients due to Chernobyl and hence included in the above definition?

“The CTB contains 4,288 cases of thyroid cancer and cellular follicular adenoma from patients who were under 19 at the time of the Chernobyl accident, of which 3 566 (2 267 from Ukraine and 1 299 from the Russian Federation) are available to researchers. Frozen material is available from 2 744 of these cases, and DNA and RNA has already been extracted from approximately 25 %.” Source: CTB Report Summary
Project ID: 211712
Country: United Kingdom
Final Report Summary – CTB (The Chernobyl tissue bank – coordinating international research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer)
Executive summary at https://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/58776_en.html

I watched the Channel 9 Australia presentation and immediately recalled the PR techniques of Dr. Goldman, bomb advocate first, reactor advocate second and one of the last “scientists” to demand the world bend to the idea that Chernobyl fallout caused no disease at all among affected people. That was 1991-92.

Nuclear power can have severe health consequences. In my view those consequences range far wider than thyroid and endocrine diseases. It ranges far wider than cancers.