A measure of the success of the nuclear industry promise to keep its fission products contained away from the biosphere.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF ATMOSPHERIC KRYPTON-85 Final Report for Period
January 1, 1977 – September 30, 1979 W. L. Boeck
Niagara University, New York 14109 , Prepared for
The U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration
Under Contract No. EE-77-S-02-4364.
“Krypton-85 is a radioactive inert gas produced during
normal operations of the nuclear fuel cycle. The quantities
of krypton-85, that will be produced in the next century, are
sufficient, if released, to alter the electrical state of the
atmosphere. The principal hypothesis is that an anthropogenic–
alteration of the electrical state of the atmosphere could
alter other meterological phenomena and lead to significant
environmental impacts. The goal of this project was to explore
some areas of basic science related to the evaluation of that
hypothesis. The approach was primarily theoretical. The
following topics were addressed, (1) a first approximation
model to estimate the effects of krypton-85 on the electrical
state of the atmosphere; (2) an analysis of the pathways between
krypton-85 production and the atmosphere; (3) an analytical
model for fair weather atmospheric electricity, and (4) a dipole
model for atmospheric electricity. The results will provide a
framework on which detailed models can be built. The results
should provide better understanding of some topics in atmospheric
electricity.” Source: US DOE:
Full text download at https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1093784/m2/1/high_res_d/5505936.pdf
Simulations of atmospheric krypton-85 to assess the detectability of clandestine nuclear reprocessing Ross,O. Ahlswede, J., Annewandter, R., Rast, S. , Schlünzen, K.H, Kalinowski, M. B.
Centre for Science and Peace Research, University of Hamburg
Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg
Use source link to see full text.
Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10-14 level using micro-liter samples
G. -M. Yang, C. -F. Cheng, W. Jiang, Z. -T. Lu, R. Purtschert, Y. -R. Sun, L. -Y. Tu & S. -M. Hu
Scientific Reports volume 3, Article number: 1596 (2013)
The isotopic abundance of 85Kr in the atmosphere, currently at the level of 10−11, has increased by orders of magnitude since the dawn of nuclear age. end quote, source as stated above.