The Validity of the Fukushima Exclusion Zones. Keep Dust Down.

Episode 34 of Channel 9 Australia’s “Sixty Minutes” contained a sequence in which Mr Ben Heard travels by car through a Fukushima Exclusion Zone along a sealed road. The hand held detection instrument used inside the vehicle displayed a low reading. Walking through empty country and an abandoned town, Mr. Heard expressed his view that the decision to continue to enforce the exclusion zone where not based upon science but upon human – I guess sociological and political – reasons. In his view such abandonment of living spaces were not and are not the fault of the Japanese nuclear industry but the fault of the civil authorities in charge of such things in the great democracy of Japan. It is well recorded that Japanese people vote, and that 9/11 galvanised millions of Japanese into greater political and ethical participation.

Of course nuclear exclusion zones are bad PR for the nuclear industry. It is self evident that nukers would poo poo them. “Trust us. We enable you to make coffee in the morning.”

All life on earth can be described as electro-chemical entities. Some species can generate copious amounts of electricity. Electric eels can generate 600 volts. Reaching up to 8 feet in length, these predators can kill humans. “Human deaths from electric eels are extremely rare. However, multiple shocks can cause respiratory or heart failure, and people have been known to drown in shallow water after a stunning jolt.” Source: National Geographic at . When I was young I read that suitably deployed two humans can generate sufficient energy to run a domestic fridge for between 2 and 120 minutes.

“The brain consumes energy at 10 times the rate of the rest of the body per gram of tissue. The average power consumption of a typical adult is 100 Watts and the brain consumes 20% of this making the power of the brain 20 W.” Source: “Power Of A Human Brain”, . Perhaps we should consider wiring the brains of politicians up to the National Energy Market.

The natural world then runs, in part, on biologically produced electricity. It has done since life first arose on the plant. It does so still in the Fukushima Exclusion Zones which so upset Mr. Heard and Channel 9 Australia.

Let’s look at life in these Exclusion Zones. Remembering that the body of any creature concentrates and stores that which is present in the biosphere. (See “Movement of Fallout Radionuclides Through the Biosphere and Man“, C.L. Comar, Annual Review of Nuclear Science, Vol. 15:175-206 (Volume publication date December 1965)

Allowing for a modern emphasis upon Radio Cesium in the current context, this training manual remains up to date. Comar’s use of the word “Man” for human is inadequate. In 1965 women were excluded far more than today in all fields, including radiological safety. I Yes Mr Heard, it was and is fallout from Fuk’. Like, it landed, it fell out of the sky after being ejected from the mass rank of broken reactors in 2011 and its not even at one half life of decay (to other shit) yet.

The following IS NOT Mr. Heard and the Channel 9 Sixty Minutes crew
stumbling through the Japanese exclusion zone looking for life :

“Final Fantasy – The Spirits Within”,
Chris Lee Productions Square Company Square USA 2001.
Directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi Motonori Sakakibara(co-director)
Writing Credits Hironobu Sakaguchi (story)
Al Reinert (written by) &
Jeff Vintar (written by)
Jack Fletcher (additional dialogue)
Ramin Mebdy (Farsi adaptation)

Has Mr. Heard no concept of the fact that the exclusion zones in Japan are based upon the edicts and guidelines issued by the ICRP and the IAEA? Of course he must. Either that or he has no idea of the binding requirements of those two peak global regulatory bodies. He makes no complaint about the rules when slams the Japanese people for what in his view a clearly deluded view of the situation. I would say the view is not deluded, though I say it is a crying shame that the Japanese people have to be bossed about by those two nuclear peak bodies.

Anyhow, let’s test Mr. Heard’s contention that the exclusion zones are a total waste of time and totally not needed. By consulting the scientific record Mr Heard and Channel 9 so totally and comprehensively ignored. Still, its a democracy and anyone can have an opinion. Further, Mr. Heard’s view of the law as expressed on the 60 Minutes show is rather “Dick and Dora” in its shallow hack insight. Imagine a nuclear nation ignoring the dictates of IAEA and ICRP. The Japanese courts would be fully occupied producing civilian winners against the errant government which refused to comply with governance from Brussels and Vienna. Better, in my view, for a nation not to be beholden to such “peak bodies” in the first place. Japan has lost more home island land to nuclear industry than it ever lost in World War 2. For some period of time, some years. Until the international boffins tell the government of Japan it can again use the land in question. Imagine that here. Pauline’s hair would go fluro overnight.

The Scientific Record Vs Mr. Heard and Channel 9 “Sixty Minutes”, Episode 34 This will be a long list and may well take me a week or so compile here.

1. ICRP Publication 111
Application of the Commission’s Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-term Contaminated Areas after a Nuclear Accident or a Radiation Emergency
Authors on behalf of ICRP
J. Lochard, I. Bogdevitch, E. Gallego, P. Hedemann-Jensen, A. McEwan, A. Nisbet, A. Oudiz, T. Schneider, P. Strand, Z. Carr, A. Janssens, T. Lazo

2. “Exposure and current health issues in Minamisoma” M. Tsubokura Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 2-54-6 Takamicho, Haramachi-ku, Minamisoma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan; e-mail: 2016 at

Salient selected quote: “More than 5 years since the disaster, internal exposure levels on the order of several thousand or several tens of thousands of becquerels are still being detected in those who regularly consume wild boar, wild birds, wild vegetables, or mushrooms that are highly contaminated, with a frequency of about several persons per 10,000 people (Tsubokura et al., 2014). However, internal exposure levels are not likely to increase for those who consume foods distributed through regular channels. External exposure levels have also been maintained at low levels. The total exposure dose for elementary and middle school children in Minamisoma who underwent external and internal exposure screening tests in 2012 was between 0.025 and 3.49 mSv year1 (median 0.70 mSv year1 ). Results showed that the annual exposure dose was <1 mSv year -1 for 77.9% of the children (Tsubokura et al., 2015b). end quote.

3. “Concentration of Radiocesium in the Wild Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata) over the First 15 Months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster”

Shin-ichi Hayama mail, Sachie Nakiri, Setsuko Nakanishi, Naomi Ishii, Taiki Uno, Takuya Kato, Fumiharu Konno, Yoshi Kawamoto, Shuichi Tsuchida, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Toshinori OmiPublished: July 03, 2013
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068530
Salient selected quote: “Cesium concentrations in the muscle of monkeys captured at locations with 100,000–300,000 Bq/m2 were 6,000–25,000 Bq/kg in April 2011 and decreased over 3 months to around 1,000 Bq/kg. However, the concentration increased again to 2,000–3,000 Bq/kg in some animals during and after December 2011 before returning to 1,000 Bq/kg in April 2012, after which it remained relatively constant. This pattern of change in muscle radiocesium concentration was similar to that of the change in radiocesium concentration in atmospheric fallout. Moreover, the monkeys feed on winter buds and the cambium layer of tree bark potentially containing higher concentrations of radiocesium than that in the diet during the rest of the year. The muscle radiocesium concentration in the monkeys related significantly with the level of soil contamination at the capture locations.”, which helps explain the findings contained in 2 above in the case of people who hunt and gather food in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

4. Beresford NA, Broadley MR, Howard BJ, Barnet CL, White PJ (2004) Estimating radionuclide transfer to wild species – data requirements and availability for terrestrial ecosystems. J Radiol Prot 24: 89–103. doi: 10.2307/3571485

5. Yoshida S, Watanabe M, Suzuki A (2011) Distribution of radiocesium and stable elements within a pine tree. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 146: 326–329. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncr181

6. Tagami K, Uchida S, Uchihori Y, Ishii N, Kitamura H, et al. (2011) Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest. Sci Total Environ 409: 4885–4888. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.067

7. Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Springerlink. Free full text download link.
Thanks Pia.

Table of contents (17 chapters)
Front Matter
The Overview of Our Research
Tomoko M. Nakanishi
Behavior of Radiocesium Adsorbed by the Leaves and Stems of Wheat Plant During the First Year After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Keitaro Tanoi
Radiocesium Absorption by Rice in Paddy Field Ecosystems
Keisuke Nemoto,
Jun Abe
Cesium Uptake in Rice: Possible Transporter, Distribution, and Variation
Toru Fujiwara
Time-Course Analysis of Radiocesium Uptake and Translocation in Rice by Radioisotope Imaging
Natsuko I. Kobayashi
Vertical Migration of Radiocesium Fallout in Soil in Fukushima
Sho Shiozawa
Radioactive Nuclides in Vegetables and Soil Resulting from Low-Level Radioactive Fallout After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Case Studies in Tokyo and Fukushima
Seiichi Oshita
Radioactivity in Agricultural Products in Fukushima
Naoto Nihei
Changes in the Transfer of Fallout Radiocaesium from Pasture Harvested in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, to Cow Milk two Months After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Noboru Manabe,
Tomotsugu Takahashi
Radiocesium Contamination of Marine Fish Muscle and Its Effective Elimination
Shugo Watabe,
Hideki Ushio,
Daisuke Ikeda
Excretion of Cesium Through Potassium Transport Pathway in the Gills of a Marine Teleost
Toyoji Kaneko,
Fumiya Furukawa
Contamination of Wild Animals: Effects on Wildlife in High Radioactivity Areas of the Agricultural and Forest Landscape
Ken Ishida
Remediation of Paddy Soil Contaminated by Radiocesium in Iitate Village in Fukushima Prefecture
Masaru Mizoguchi
Distribution of Radiocesium from the Radioactive Fallout in Fruit Trees
Daisuke Takata
Mushrooms: Radioactive Contamination of Widespread Mushrooms in Japan
Toshihiro Yamada
Diffusion and Transportation Dynamics of 137Cs Deposited on the Forested Area in Fukushima After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in March 2011
Nobuhito Ohte,
Masashi Murakami
Development of an Information Package of Radiation Risk in Beef After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

ISBN 978-4-431-54327-5 ISBN 978-4-431-54328-2 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2
Springer Tokyo Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013934221
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2013. The book is published with open access

8. Concentrations of Accumulated Plutonium and Strontium

Ministry maps strontium, plutonium fallout

Previous ArticleNISA, energy agency tried to skew public opinion
Next ArticleFamed red lighthouse on Horaijima will shine again

October 01, 2011

Levels of strontium in soil near the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant are up to six times the highest concentrations deposited in Japan by pre-1980 atmospheric nuclear tests, according to the science ministry.

Official maps of soil contamination by strontium and plutonium were published for the first time on Sept. 30 and reveal that, while concentrations are dwarfed by the radioactive cesium leaked from the stricken plant since March 11, significant quantities are present in some locations.

The survey team collected soil samples within a 100-km radius of the nuclear plant between June 6 and July 8.

The concentrations of different nuclides of strontium and plutonium per square meter were analyzed at 100 locations, including each of the 59 municipalities within an 80-km radius of the plant. Forty-one additional locations within the 20-km no-entry zone were studied.

Strontium-90, which has a half-life of about 30 years, was most concentrated at a location in Futaba town within the zone. The 5,700 becquerels per square meter detected there was six times the maximum of 950 becquerels per square meter found during fiscal 1999-2008 nationwide surveys by the science ministry and attributed to nuclear tests.

Strontium-90 concentrations exceeding 950 becquerels per square meter were detected at eight locations. Seven of them were either within 20 km of the plant or beyond that radius to the northwest.

The maximum concentration of plutonium-238 was 4 becquerels per square meter, while the maximum combined concentration of plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 was 15 becquerels per square meter. At all locations, the plutonium concentrations were below the maximum levels detected before the accident.

At six locations lying either within a 30-km radius of the nuclear plant or beyond that radius to the northwest, however, the proportion of total plutonium consisting of plutonium-238 was much higher than in residual levels left by the nuclear tests, clearly indicating that the contamination was caused by the Fukushima disaster, the ministry said. Plutonium from the latest accident had previously only been detected on the grounds of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant.

On average, the strontium concentrations were less than 1 percent of the concentrations of radioactive cesium.

“Both the plutonium and strontium concentrations are very small compared to those of cesium. Future assessment of the impact of radiation exposure and the design of decontamination measures should be focused on cesium,” a ministry official said. end quote.

9. Fallout Map – Deposition from the Fukushima Event.

The source for the following is:
The following information is available as a free PowerPoint document from the above website.

Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Publication Date April 7, 2011

10. Prof Kosuke Noborio, Meiji University. “The Fight Against Radio Cesium in Soil”

Kosuke Noborio
Department/ School Professor, Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture (Laboratory of Land Resources)
Bio Dean, Meiji University Graduate School of Agriculture (2010-2012);
Councilor, Institute of Soil Physics (2009-2011, 2011-2013);
Director, Soil Physics Research Division, The Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Rural Engineering (2009-2011)
Degree Ph.D., Texas A&M University (
Research themes Soil Physics / Environmental Physics

The team ponders the contaminated Japanese forests. Godspeed and best of luck. In a Tokyo court case TEPCO won a case in which the company claim the contents of its reactor fuel rods, spread as dust over the defined areas of Japan belonged to the land owners, not TEPCO. So much for non proliferation.

“Temporary Decontamination would be a never ending process….A research group was formed comprising researchers at Meiji University, University of Tokyo, and Shimane University to discuss how to reduce radiation levels. A method on how to decontaminate farm land that had been contaminated by cesium was also in our minds. However, upon visiting the actual contamination site in June, we realized that this method was merely a theory and nothing else.” end quote. Please read the whole thing. I see a market opportunity for Port Willunga Potting Mix in Japan.

11. Contaminated forests: Management after Chernobyl and Fukushima
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1 August 2013.
Written by Winifred BirdJane Braxton Little at

Selected quote: “Cesium around Fukushima is also migrating from trees and leaves into the soil. When scientists at the government-funded Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute surveyed the distribution of radiocesium at three forested sites in the fall of 2011, they found between a third and half of contaminants were in the leaf litter. Removing these fallen leaves, they suggested, would be a relatively efficient way to clean up forests. By the time the researchers re-tested the same three sites a year later, however, contaminants had shifted dramatically downward: Between 65 and 77 percent of radiocesium was in the soil, where it is much more difficult, expensive, and environmentally harmful to remove.” end quote.

12. Scientific Forum: The Blue Planet – Nuclear Applications for a Sustainable Marine Environment
Vienna, Austria
17-18 September 2013 Conference ID: 43050 (CN-207)

Observation : Should have been written and presented by Mr Ripley, but it wasn’t. The water tank monitoring dude at Fuk had to taken a fortnight off recovering on hearing about it. He wasn’t invited. Neither were the fishermen.

13. Fukushima data show rise and fall in food radioactivity
Giant database captures fluctuating radioactivity levels in vegetables, fruit, meat and tea.
Elizabeth Gibney
27 February 2015
Nature Science Journal News.
See full article at original link. The following is a partial quote only for study purposes.
A massive food-monitoring programme in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear disaster has provided scientists with a unique look at how radioactivity peaks in different foods after a nuclear spill.


Bad Timing: Japan Opens First Nuclear Plant Since Fukushima As Neighboring Volcano Erupts
Tyler Durden’s picture
Submitted by Tyler Durden on 08/15/2015 12:35 -0400

Monty Python’s pyrotechnic cheese shop of facts springs to mind. Volcanoes are nothing for the industry to worry about. Like tsunamis, they are beyond design basis and cannot, therefore, according to fearless leaders, possibly take the gloss off the product being flogged. It has about 10 years of flogging left I reckon. I could be wrong. Hey even nuclear experts have been wrong. Repeatedly.

15. Fukushima Dai-Ichi and the Economics of Nuclear Decontamination.

GRIPS Discussion Paper 12-01 Fukushima Dai-Ichi and the Economics of Nuclear Decontamination. By Alistair Munro May 2012

Abstract: Economic analysis of nuclear accidents and their aftermath is comparatively rare. In this paper, in the light of the Japanese government’s intensive efforts to decontaminate areas affected by radioactive Caesium from Fukushima dai‐ichi nuclear power plant, we create a cost‐benefit framework for assessing the merits of decontamination strategies. Using some benchmark data for Japan we estimate that optimal delay is positive for most reasonable parameter values. For low value land, optimal delay could be in excess of 30 years. For higher value, urban land, optimal delay generally lies in the range of 5‐10 years.

see also

16. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

J Environ Radioact. 2011 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.
Amano H, Akiyama M, Chunlei B, Kawamura T, Kishimoto T, Kuroda T, Muroi T, Odaira T, Ohta Y, Takeda K, Watanabe Y, Morimoto T.

Japan Chemical Analysis Center, 295-3 Sanno-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-0002, Japan.

Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies”>

Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies

Hiroaki Kato1,*,
Yuichi Onda1,
Takashi Gomi2


[1] The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the surrounding forests. In this study, we analyzed fallout 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in rainwater, throughfall, and stemflow in coniferous forest plantations immediately after the accident. We show selective fractionation of the deposited radionuclides by the forest canopy and contrasting transfer of radiocesium and 131I from the canopy to the forest floor in association with precipitation. More than 60% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy after 5 month of the initial fallout, while marked penetration of the initially deposited 131I through the canopy was observed. The half-lives of137Cs absorbed in the cypress and cedar canopies were calculated as 620 days and 890 days, respectively for the period of 0–160 days. The transfer of the deposited radiocesium from the canopy to the forest floor was slow compared with that of the spruce forest affected by fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

18. Cesium concentrations vary in river, lake sand around Fukushima
Asahi Shimbun Japan

February 24, 2012


Concentrations of radioactive cesium at the bottoms of rivers and lakes vary widely, but include some with the potential to affect ecosystems, according to Environment Ministry studies on water systems.

The ministry released the full results on the studies on radioactive fallout from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant on surrounding water systems. The surveys were conducted between August and January at 725 locations in Fukushima, Miyagi, Yamagata, Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Chiba and Iwate prefectures.

19. Hydrology and Flow Accumulation Near Fukushima Daiichi PP

20. Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan
Toshiaki Mizunoa,1 and Hideya Kubo1

quote: “The serious accidents of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant have been contaminating a vast area in eastern Japan1, home of 60 million people. Consumption of freshwater fish is an important part of the aquatic pathway for the transfer of radionuclides to the freshwater ecosystem creatures including humans2. Therefore the contamination of freshwater fish of aquatic bioaccumulation is an important problem3,4. In the case of the Chernobyl Accident, the transfer of radionuclides to fish has been studied in European countries5,6,7. Most attention was focused on Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, because of the higher contamination of water bodies in these areas8,9. However, in the case of Fukushima, there is little information about freshwater ecosystem contamination in 2011. Therefore, this paper focuses on an overview of active cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137) contaminations of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on 2011 data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government10…..

“Highest contaminated area in fukushima prefecture
Fukushima Prefecture is located in the northeastern part of the Main Island of Japan (Fig. 1). It is divided into three sub-regions by its mountainous topography, i.e., Hamadori, Nakadori and Aizu (from east to west). Hamadori is the coastal region facing the Pacific Ocean and separated from Nakadori (central basin) by the Abukuma Highlands. The westernmost Aizu is mountainous with the Aizu Basin in the center. There still is a rich natural environment maintained throughout the prefecture with three national parks, one quasi-national park and eleven prefectural parks present. The mountain ranges form headwaters and basins of many rivers such as the Abukuma River and the Aga River. The Abukuma Highlands is designated as one of the prefectural parks and rich in endemic wildlife including the indigenous forest green tree frog (Rhacophorus arboreus) and salamanders (Hynobius lichenatus, Hynobius nigrescens). There the Ayu (Plecoglossidae: Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis), Salmon (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis) and carp (Cyprinidae: Tribolodon hakonensis, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius.sp) are very popular freshwater fish for fishing and angling….

source: Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan
Toshiaki Mizunoa,1 and Hideya Kubo1

Death is not the primary outcome suffered by People Living in Long-term Contaminated Areas after a Nuclear Accident or a Radiation Emergency. As the Japanese population as a whole consume a diet which is among the world’s richest in stable Iodine, many experts have long held the view that those affected by the contamination caused by the mass failures of Japanese Nuclear Power Plants will not suffer in a manner which is statistically similar to that suffered by particularly the children impacted by the failure of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor failure. By citing the following source I am not suggesting the fate of Fukushima’s children will be or is similar to that suffered by the children of Chernobyl. It must be remembered that disease and iodine uptake is closely linked, with excess iodine being a driver of disease as much as a deficit is. However, both internal and exposure radiation (from ground shine and external contamination of clothing and skin) will have played a role in whatever radiogenic disease which affected children may (or may not suffer). It is not my aim to predict outcomes. It is my role here to cite sources and to emphasise aspects omitted by nuclear sales staff.

21. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident., Pacini F1, Vorontsova T, Molinaro E, Shavrova E, Agate L, Kuchinskaya E, Elisei R, Demidchik EP, Pinchera A.
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 Dec;88(433):23-7.

It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid antibodies not associated with significant thyroid dysfunction. This finding is consistent with the short period of follow-up, but it is highly likely that these children will develop clinical thyroid autoimmune diseases in the future. Therefore, screening programmes for this at-risk population should focus, not only on the detection of thyroid nodules and cancer, but also on the development of thyroid autoimmune diseases.” end quote.

Anyone who suffers, or knows someone who suffers thyroid autoimmune disease realises that the reality to the situation is far different to that promoted by the spokeswoman from Imperial College London, during the Channel 9 Sixty Minutes Program Episode 34 broadcast on 21 October 2018 in Adelaide South Australia. The home of nuclear reactor design in the UK, Imperial College has a sales axe to grind in my opinion. It has at most 20 years left in which to sell reactors to the world.

I have no doubt in my mind that Australia can supply its electricity needs with technology which does not require the use of nuclear technology.

We are in an energy technology cusp and as the transition through the cusp proceeds, the nuclear industry will become increasingly hysterical, to the point where occupational therapists at Adelaide University and elsewhere, speaking outside the areas of their qualifications, will claim that even with a nuclear meltdown every 30 years (Toshiba’s estimate prior to its bankruptcy) two things would happen: a. the industry could afford such frequent disasters. 2. Evacuation zones would not be valid or needed.

Well may Westinghouse, GE and Toshiba nuclear divisions be financially biting the dust. I have to gladly relay to them that 2 power reactors in Australia will not save them. Such will be white elephants around the necks of multiple generations of Australian children.

Canada may take 9 years to build a new power reactor. In Australia it will take at least 20 years. Assuming that Parliament can muster the social licence to change the relevant laws to allow such installations to be built here. A big if.

Academics acting outside their areas of qualifications are just lay people like you and I in those matters. They prefer the meritocracy of university, those institutions who only consider the qualified peer view, and ignore the rest.

Australian democracy demands something far better than dictates about radiation safety and the validity of evacuation zones from someone expert, as he may be, in occupational therapy and regular cheese and greens nights with reactor designers and their related kinfolk.

Not one expert has described the IAEA regulatory requirements for a nuclear compatible electricity transmission infrastructure and the cost of that to Australia and South Australia. Here’s a clue: minutes of failures that cut off SA from the NEM“, the Australian Financial Review. Mark Ludlow Oct 2016. Had there been a nuclear power plant in South Australia on 28 Sept 2016, it would have been a step away from station blackout. Had its generator tripped, it would have been reliant upon its back up and emergency systems. What is the significance of that technically for those in charge? See next post.