Perovskite solar cells: In pursuit of efficiency and stability
Author links open overlay panelJasmin S.ShaikhaNavajsharif S.ShaikhdArif D.SheikhbSawanta S.MalicAbhijeet J.KaleaPongsakornKanjanaboosdChang KookHongcJ.H.KimePramod S.Patilab
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are coming with positive hopes for researchers to commercialize high-power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low-cost solar cells.
Recently, NREL-certified record PCE of PSC is 22.1%, which is competing to silicon solar cells has been reported. However, PSC devices are environmentally sensitive leading to a rapid PCE degradation. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of the role of various parameters to achieve highly stable PSC without compromising on its performance. This review contains an overview of a recent progress in PSC with respect to PCE, materials engineering, and stability. Energy level diagram of various perovskite materials, electron conducting materials (ECMs) and hole conducting materials (HCMs) constitute pivotal role in selecting their combinations. Hence we have added detailed energy level diagrams from which researcher can select best possible combination to achieve highest efficiency. An in-depth discussion on the types of PSCs based on thin film, mesoporous, n-i-p and p-i-n architectures fabricated by using different deposition techniques has been provided.
In order to transfer this exciting achievement to industry level, it is necessary to understand degradation process at different conditions. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of recombination, instability in PSCs and achieved success has been incorporated to apprehend the step-wise developments in this field and to find possible pathways that limit their stability.