The individual and regular reports made by Hamilton to the Manhattan Project from 1942 are listed at the DOE Opennet online archive. The following is a post war paper dealing with what was learnt.
The Metabolism of the Fission Products and the Heaviest Elements
Jos. G. Hamilton, M.D.
+ Author Affiliations
Division of Medical Physics (Berkeley), Divisions of Medicine and Radiology (San Francisco) University of California
↵1 This document is based on work performed under Contract No. W-7405-eng-48-A for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic Energy Commission.
It is a brief version of material to be published in the Plutonium Project Record of the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Presented at the Thirty-second Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Chicago, Ill., Dec. 1–6, 1946.
An investigation of the assimilation, distribution, retention, and excretion of fission products and the heaviest elements in the rat has been conducted at the Crocker Radiation Laboratory of the University of California. These studies were initiated Oct. 15, 1942, and are continuing at the present time. An extensive survey has been made of the metabolism of twenty different radio-elements. This project has been carried forward by Dorothy Axelrod, M.A., Asst. Prof. D. H. Copp, M.D., Ph.D., Josephine Crowley, A.B., Harvey Fisher, A.B., Ph.D, Henry Lanz, Jr., A.B., Kenneth G. Scott, A.B., L. Van Middlesworth, Ph.D., and the author. During the early phases of the work, we were fortunate in having the advice and aid of Professors I. L. Chaikoff, D. M. Greenberg, and their associates, who assisted the program materially, particularly in the studies with strontium, barium, and cesium. Also with the group, during the war, were Assoc. Prof. Roy Overstreet and Asst. Prof. Louis Jacobson, whose contributions included the radiochemical preparations necessary for the tracer studies. We acknowledge with gratitude the facilities that were extended to us by Prof. Ernest O. Lawrence to do this work in the Radiation Laboratory, the constant advice and encouragement given to us by Dr. Robert S. Stone and his colleagues of the Health Division in the Plutonium Project, the assistance and counsel from Dean S. L. Warren and his staff, the help of the operating crew of the 60-inch cyclotron for the preparation of most of the radio-elements used in these studies, and the cooperation of Profs. W. M. Latimer, G. T. Seaborg, and their associates in providing certain key radio-elements for these studies, notably neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium.
Introduction and Methods During the early phases of the development of the Plutonium Project, it became apparent that one of the most serious problems to be encountered was the protection of personnel working in this field against the immense quantities of radiation and radioactive materials produced by the chain-reacting pile. The most important hazard that arises from the release of nuclear energy are radiations produced directly from fission and subsequently emitted by the resultant fission products and plutonium. The fission products can produce injury either as an external source of radiation or, if they gain entry into the body, by acting as an internal radioactive poison, quite analogous to radium poisoning. This latter consideration is a major concern, since the amounts required within the body to produce injurious effects are minute compared to the quantities necessary to induce damage by external beta and gamma irradiation.
A comparison with the history of the radium industry gives an index of the magnitude of the problem presented by fission products and plutonium to the medical protection program of the Plutonium Project.
OK is everybody clear on that?
IN relation to fission products and plutonium when internalised (within) in the body, the amounts needed to inflict harm are ‘MINUTE’ in physical amount. Source: Manhattan Project contract W-7405-eng-48-A, 1942, Joe Hamilton.
I wonder why it is that Dr. Busby has to take so much flak for merely repeating this information.
Hamilton has not yet been found to be wrong. No corrections have ever been issued by nuclear authorities responsible for the program which funded Hamilton to investigate the matter and produce the information.
If the physical amounts of internalised radionuclides required to produce harm are “minute”, what does that say about the measured external dose in Sieverts as an indicator of harm on its own?
Its not an indicator at all. It is merely a crude measure of either absence or presence of internalisation hazard.
If one is not permitted to present proof in court to be tested in the light of day, if the discovery of the evidence is deliberately hidden for any time, then there is, in fact no law and no hope of justice. The attitude of the law seems to be that only the dead may hold the truth, and this is very happy for the Law. For dead people cannot sue. The ones who died first may hold the best truth, but only the living can speak for them. The living suffer also and they suffer still. Soon, before this present decade is out, only their children will be left to speak. And speak they will, for many have just cause also.
Those are aware of this injustice and who protest as a result are labelled by nuclear authorities falsely as ignorant, hysterical, malcontent radiophobes.
Hamilton: “The fission products can produce injury either as an external source of radiation or, if they gain entry into the body, by acting as an internal radioactive poison, quite analogous to radium poisoning. This latter consideration is a major concern, since the amounts required within the body to produce injurious effects are minute compared to the quantities necessary to induce damage by external beta and gamma irradiation.
Is there any nuclear authority out there who is prepared to Label Hamilton (he of the human plutonium injection project) a radiophobe?
Why then label as hysterical radiophobes the people who read him and thus disagree with the Nuclear Slum in its feeble utterances as manifest today?
“Minute amount of radiochemical” is a measure of weight. 1/28,000th of a gram of strontium 89 is 1 curie. 1 gram of radium is 1 curie. A small fraction of a gram of ingested radium mutilated and killed the radium dial painters of the 1920s and 1930s. Thus Hamilton writes:
“The fission products can produce injury either as an external source of radiation or, if they gain entry into the body, by acting as an internal radioactive poison, quite analogous to radium poisoning. This latter consideration is a major concern, since the amounts required within the body to produce injurious effects are minute compared to the quantities necessary to induce damage by external beta and gamma irradiation.“
I am quite happy to republish this piece once a week for the rest of my life. Nuclear authorities rely on the fact that it is expected that ordinary people are not know, and in the case knowing, we are expected to forget.
I will remember them, even to the going down of the sun.
In response to these facts in the period post March 2011, a spokesman from Adelaide University told a public meeting that the solution to the problem was the use of little plastic bags to contain the material.
He was speaking in relation to alpha emitters. He was in fact ignoring the primary danger inherent in the act of taking a process which is quite controllable in a lab and implying the standards of control enabled in the lab will in all cases be achievable at the industrial scale.
History shows that when processes perfected in the lab are scaled up to industrial size, containment will always be of a lesser standard.
The most serious breach of protocol a radiation worker can commit is that of the unsealing of a sealed source. When that occurs, under nuclear regulations a breach of law, a crime has been committed. In and of itself. Why? Read Hamilton above.
The term “sealed source” is a technical one. And everyone in the field knows it.
The promise of the industry from its inception has been the promise to keep its sources sealed.
It has failed miserably in this undertaking and know spends millions and millions of dollars trying to sell the idea that there is a beneficial dose and that its nuclear pollution is a public health benefit.
We have seen over the last 2 years various claims in reponse to the unsealing of sources at Fukushima Diiachi. All of these claims are nonsense and known to be so by the institutions who peddle them in an effort to deny the crime of uncontrolled unsealing of sealed sources on a massive scale.
I will never forget the “expert” voice over to the explosion of the reactors at Fukushima Diiachi. “This is normal” the man from Canberra said.
How many of your little plastic bags will it take to redeem Japan Barry?
These tanks, which grow in number as time passes, are the best technical fix to the long known hazard of industrial scale unsealing of radioactive source material. It is the industry’s best attempt to put the genie released by incompetence in a human made disaster (Japanese Diet) back into containment. But this is only at the site.
The dispered material will never find its way back home. The public is expected by the industry to eat and breathe it.
The technical fine points of what does what to whom is one argument. There is no argument of the failure of duty though to keep the sources sealed in the first instance. The assurance of industry issued over decades that such a breach would not occur was bellowed over the evidence to the contrary. Evidence discovered and published over the same long span of decades.
To poin this out does not make one a radiophobe or petrol head Barry.
Imagine, extreme climate coupled with increasing numbers of suburbs reduced to the radiological status of a nuclear battefield.
Its not either/or Barry, its both/and.
On a nuclear battlefield, the military significance of Strontium 89 release is 3 years. It’s half life is approximately 52 days. Andrew Bolt has never ever been able to get his head around this concept.
One of the first proposed sites for Australia’s nuclear waste dump was Oxley, in Queensland. It was promoted as perfectly safe for the facility.
“Brisbane Flood 2011 Oxley”
It was not placed there only because people of the type who Flinders University and Adelaide University have labelled “radiophobic” (ie those who would disagree with the esteemed edicts of those hallowed halls) protested successfully. The next place suggested by the experts was a military firing range in Victoria, but the Air Force objected. The temporary solution was to place the nuclear waste dump behind the intrumented range at Woomera Rocket Launch site.
Sometimes it’s pretty easy a genius at work, sometimes not.
: “TEPCO clears woodlands of trees for storage tanks”