Ann ICRP. 2012 Oct-Dec;41(3-4):318-31. doi: 10.1016/j.icrp.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Aug 22.
NORM management in the oil and gas industry.
Cowie M1, Mously K, Fageeha O, Nassar R.
It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco’s experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This and preceding posts confirms the nuclear industry claim that modern background radiation levels are radically lower than those present when Homo Sapiens first evolved 200,000 years ago are false. Rather, technological activities and modern building designs often amplify the risk posed by NORM. (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). This amplification of risk via concentration occurs in modern sealed buildings etc and in processes which concentrate naturally occurring radioactive materials.
In the USA exposure to natural radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking.